Dyop® - Dynamic Optotype™

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Vision as a Dynamic Process

The Mechanics of Vision 

 

Introducing the "revolutionary" Dyop® method of measuring vision

 

 

 

 

Dyop Vision Webpage

 

http://chart2020.com/dyop/

 

 

 

 

Dyop Video

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UoXpdI9pVNI

 

 

   Strobic Dyop® Stimulus

 

 

Vision is a dynamic process. 

21st Century Vision Testing Can No Longer Rely on 1862 Technology

 

Your eyes are biological machines which developed as sensors for detecting motion, as well as detecting distance and colors, to enable us to detect predators and game and so that we can eat rather than be eaten.  

 

For you to see most efficiently, your vision also is an autonomic process.  We are usually totally unaware of the mechanics of that process. 

 

Current global vision “standards” are based on an 1862 concept dependent upon the cultural skill of detecting the size and differences between static letters, such as “E” and “C.”  As a result, that 1862 method is dependent upon cognition and culture, rather than physiology, and improperly and imprecisely measures vision.

1862

 

    2019

 

 

 

As the letters get smaller

they become harder to recognize

 

                                     As the apparent size of the Dyop gets smaller

                                       detection of spinning disappears.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20/22

 

20/20

 

20/18

 

1862 Snellen Vision Testing

 

                                             21st Century Dyop® Vision Testing

                                                                                                                                                                                                    

 

The Mechanics of Vision 

 

Your eyes developed to detect motion.  As you read these words you think you are seeing lines and shapes and letters.  What you are actually seeing are pixels of light generated by electronic phosphors within the surface of your computer screen.


However, those electronic pixels are perceived by the photoreceptors of the retina in the back of your eye, which respond to light as biological pixels.  Those retina photoreceptor pixels combine their response (primarily the colors
red, green, and blue) into giving you the perception of vision. 

 

The impetus for survival also gave your eyes a preference for detecting motion.  When you fixate on the Plus (+) in the circle image below, you will likely see a moving Green circle which appears as the Pink circles seem to rotate around that Plus.  The moving Green circle appears because of the refresh rate and depletion of the Red photoreceptors and their inability to respond to the color Red in the Gray background. 

 

The Lilac Chaser Illusion

 

The Lilac Chaser Illusion

 

Introducing the Dyop®

 

Dyop® (short for dynamic optotype) is spinning segmented ring which provides a strobic photoreceptor stimulus for use as a visual target (optotype).  A Dyop functions much as a visual tuning fork to precisely, consistently, and efficiently benchmark your acuity (visual clarity).  The apparent motion of the gaps and segments of the spinning Dyop create a strobic binary stimulus of the photoreceptors of your eye.  When the gap/segment area of a spinning Dyop gets too small (as the Dyop ring appears to become smaller), that gap/segment strobic visual stimulus area is too small for the photoreceptors to detect that apparent gap/segment motion.  The smallest diameter Dyop ring whose gaps/segments are detected as spinning serves as the acuity endpoint to precisely benchmark acuity (visual clarity) and can be used to determine refractions.  It also allows for the precise measurement of vision and acuity in color.

 

As the letters get smaller

they become harder to recognize

 

                                     As the apparent size of the Dyop gets smaller

                                       detection of spinning disappears.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20/22

 

20/20

 

20/18

 

1862 Snellen Vision Testing

 

                                             21st Century Dyop® Vision Testing

 

The smallest Dyop gap/segment stimulus area detected as spinning is also the minimum visual stimulus threshold area (Minimum AREA of Resolution - MAR) which correlates to the response of about 20 photoreceptors.  That Dyop MAR threshold is significantly more precise, consistent, and efficient than staring at letters.  Note that the direction of Dyop spinning is irrelevant.  That process of detecting the minimum diameter of a spinning Dyop also lets the Dyop test be used for individuals who “can’t read,” infants and young children, and individuals with letter-processing problems such as dyslexia

 

“Classical” letter-based vision tests also use a theoretical gap stimulus area (the Minimum AREA of Resolution - MAR) of 1.0 arc minutes squared.   That letter-based stimulus AREA is significantly larger (almost 2X) than the empirically derived 0.54 arc minutes squared empirically determined Dyop Minimum AREA of Resolution.  Static letter-based tests are also inherently imprecise because they use the cognition of cultural shapes to benchmark vision rather than the actual physiological response of the eye.  Cognition of European-type letters based letters become a guessing game for both the doctor and patient and measures conceptual processing by the patient as much as it does visual clarity. 

 

How the Eye Works

 

Your eyes function similar to the pixels receptors of a computerized video camera.  The eye’s photoreceptors not only allow you to see in color (primarily red, green, and blue), but the refresh rate of the photoreceptors, the saccade process, and the matrix response of the photoreceptors allow you to track changes in the location of those images.  The response of about 100 photoreceptors combines to create the stimulus for each optic nerve fiber going to the brain which creates vision and brings that image into focus.  However, the neural ganglia layer of the retina “process” those photoreceptor responses in clusters of about 20 photoreceptors much as a biological circuit board with the emphasis on patterns of motion and proximity.  The comparative focal depth of the red, green, and blue colors of the images also regulates the shape of the biological lens and adjusts focal clarity.

 

Light passes through the lens

to reach the retina

Retina Structure

 4 Neural Layers

Photoreceptors as Pixels

Retina Color Perception

Wavelengths of light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Light => => Perception

 

The History of Vision Measurement

 

Thousands of years ago, visual clarity (acuity) was defined by the ability to see the nighttime gap between two of the smaller stars in the handle of the Big Dipper constellation.

 

Stellar Acuity

Static Letter-based Acuity

Dyop Strobic Acuity

 

In 1862 Dutch Ophthalmologist Herman Snellen used the ability to identify (European) letters as the benchmark for visual acuity.  Reading had become a dominant economic and social skill in Europe.  Snellen used the convenience of black letters on a white background as the benchmark although most of what we see is NOT in black and white and other cultures use pictographs rather than letter-based words.

 

As the letters get smaller

they become harder to recognize

 

                                     As the apparent size of the Dyop gets smaller

                                       detection of spinning disappears.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20/22

 

20/20

 

20/18

 

1862 Snellen Vision Testing

 

                                             21st Century Dyop® Vision Testing

 

The strobic Dyop stimulus lets you sense the pixel response to the images you are seeing.

 

While twenty first century technology is letter-based technology, today’s visual acuity is primarily measured by the clarity and ability to read text on an electronic display.  Unfortunately, vision science has not kept up with the precision and demands of those 21st century visual needs.

 

 

The increased precision and consistency of the Dyop® tests are intended as a global replacement for static letter-based tests such as Snellen, Sloan, and Landolt optotypes and provide a more universal and efficient method of vision measurement.

 

The personal version of the Dyop® test is intended to measure your visual clarity; however a prescription for glasses or contact lenses requires vision testing and refractions performed by an eye doctor and CANNOT be done on a two-dimensional display such as a computer.  Measure your vision with the Dyop test using the Dyop Personal Acuity Test, and if you can’t see clearly enough, GO SEE YOUR EYE DOCTOR.

 

Dyop® tests are for vision screening purposes only and are NOT a substitute for an examination by a licensed vision care professional. 

 

 

“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.”
- Arthur C. Clarke’s Third Law

 

As a culture we are only as good as our memory.  As a species we are only as good as our vision.

 

Just as the hand, held before the eye, can hide the tallest mountain, so the routine of everyday life can keep us from seeing the vast radiance and the secret wonders that fill the earth.

-          Chasidic, 18th Century

 

The Dyop® (Dynamic Optotype™) tests and concept are covered under U.S. Patent US 8,083,353

and International Published Patent WO 2011/022428.

For further information contact: Allan Hytowitz at Allan@Dyop.org

5035 Morton Ferry Circle, Alpharetta, GA, 30022   /   678-893-0580

Copyright©2019 Dyop® Vision Associates.  All Rights Reserved