Does Donald Trump have dyslexia?






The following analysis is based upon documented technology and correlations which have peer-reviewable academic validation.

The conclusions and observations below can be easily validated.






Donald Trump has dyslexia.


Dyslexia has little or nothing to do with (limited) intelligence or “letter reversal.” Rather it is the consequence of individuals having difficulty reading and/or understanding letter based words. 


Based upon body language, behavior, and videos showing Trump in situations where he is expected to be able to read, it is overwhelmingly obvious that Donald Trump has dyslexia.  His abusive, narcissistic behavior is NOT so much a collection of character flaws, but rather his attempt to hide his illiteracy by being excessively aggressive and/or abusive.  That abusive, lying behavior is NOT so much an effect OF the dyslexia but from the effect of Trump’s abusive/neglected childhood and his NOT realizing the source of his literacy difficulties.


The physiological visual tests which indicate dyslexia are also exhibited in the (small) sample of dedicated Trump supporters.  Rather than being a “populist” movement, the primary source of their “belief” in Trump and their demonstrated gullibility is likely their dyslexia.




Videos illustrating Donald Trump’s dyslexia


David Pakman comments


Watch Tony Schwartz (author of “The Art of the Deal”) at Oxford University


Go to the 40 minute mark in the interview and be REALLY amazed, AND scared.




Technical Explanation


Print version:



Dyslexia is a difficulty associated with the reduction of reading comprehension and speed, despite those individuals otherwise having normal intelligence.  It is primarily a visual problem rather than a cerebral problem.  The universality of the higher red photoreceptor ratio as to chromatic dyslexia indicates that the cerebral problems result from the disparate color perception problem.


Types of visual dyslexia


Strabismus dyslexia - the eyes are not able to work in unison to simultaneously see the same image.

Chromatic dyslexia - a higher percentage of red photoreceptors increases the stability of distant images but decreases the stability of close image.  The increase in near-vision stress impedes reading (de-coding) letter-based words

Overminus dyslexia - excess refractive lens power reduces cognition.


Much of the purported “letter reversal” associated with dyslexia is in actuality a matter of “bad guessing” of the letters and words due to an unstable image rather than a cerebral dysfunction.


Dyslexia has little or nothing to do with intelligence or “letter reversal.” Rather it is the consequence of individuals having difficulty reading and understanding letter-based words.  The politically correct term “slow readers” has been created to describe individuals with dyslexia.  However, it was recently discovered that most “slow readers” have a higher percentage of red (L) to green (M) photoreceptors.


Vision Categories




Chromatic dyslexia and Graphic-Based Vision is associated with the retina having a 75% red and 20% green and 5% blue percentage of photoreceptors.  Letter-Based Vision has a 50% red and 45% green and 5% blue percentage of photoreceptors


Accommodation is the rapid changing of the shape of the biological lens to adjust the focal length of an image so that it is “focused” on the retina.  That focal length is regulated by the relative focal depth of the colors red and green relative to the retina.  “Slow readers” tend to have 75% red (L) and 20% green (M) photoreceptors while non-slow readers have 50% red (L) and 45% green (M) photoreceptors.  A higher percentage of red (75%) facilitates a more stable distance image with red focused on the back of the retina and green in front of the retina (Graphic-Based Vision), while a more-balanced lower percentage of red (50%) facilitates green (45%) being focused on the retina and red behind the retina for a more stable near image (Letter-based Vision).  Individuals with that higher percentage of red (75%) tend to have an unstable near-image and symptoms of what we call dyslexia, as well as symptoms of migraines and epilepsy due to the added near-image visual stress.


There also seems to be a genetic factor as to the ratio of red/green photoreceptors. 


Dyslexia is so rampant (90%) among Native Americans that the term “dyslexia” is viewed as a racial epithet.  The term "Graphic-Based Vision" is also a more explanatory description of the visual mechanisms of color perception than the term ”dyslexic vision.”  It also allows inclusion of a broader range of symptoms such as migraines and/or epilepsy.

About 80% of the European gene pool has predominantly “Letter-based Vision” which could correlate to the use of letter-based words from a greater near image visual stability.   About 80% of the Chinese gene pool has Graphic-Based Vision and may correlate to the development of pictographic based words which are more stable at a further distance.   About 90% of Native Americans have Graphic-Based Vision and are survivors of the Mongolian gene pool which crossed over the Bering Straight some 13,000 years ago.  The 90% Graphic-Based Vision of Native Americans likely correlates to 80% of Hispanic Americans having Graphic-Based Vision due to racial mingling.  About 80% of Native Africans have Graphic-Based Vision which likely correlates to the 60% of African-Americans having Graphic-Based Vision due to (frequently forced) racial mingling


Because 21st century technology is letter-based, people with dyslexia have an impediment as to developing those competitive literacy skills.  Graphic-Based Vision may also explain why some African-American and Hispanic students struggle with "letter-based" education.  Learning to read (reading “White”) frequently requires learning to read words as pictographs, such as in the Orton-Gillingham technique.  Chromatically modulated (tinted) lenses could potentially eliminate those dyslexia, migraine, and epilepsy symptoms.


However, there are psychological and physiological factors associated with near-image visual stress.


People with chromatic dyslexia tend to overcompensate due to that unstable near-vision image.  As they walk down a hallway corridor their heads tend to bob from side-to-side (known as the "Steve Jobs walk"). They tend to have a preference for authoritarianism due to overcompensation to that visual instability (known as the "Steve Jobs style of management"). They also tend to have difficulty with written academics (such as "Steve Jobs the college dropout"), and a propensity for drug such as marijuana and alcohol which reduce the visual stress from the difficulty of focusing on near-images (which partly is why Jobs went to India where weed is legal and widely available).


What is stunning is that almost all of the Donald Trump supporters have symptoms of chromatic dyslexia.



The Screening Test for Chromatic Dyslexia


To screen for the chromatic dyslexia concept we developed a 10 second color contrast test which uses a segmented uniformly spinning ring called a Dyop, short for dynamic optotype.  The photoreceptors of the eye function much like pixels in an electronic camera to create vision and to bring an image into focus.  When the spinning gaps and segments of a Dyop get too small, their strobic stimulus area is too small for the photoreceptor pixel effect to be detected by the eye. The smallest Dyop diameter (arc width) detected as spinning creates an acuity and refraction endpoint. 


The spinning Green-on-White and spinning Blue-on-Black Dyops of the test have identical angular diameters.   By moving away from the screen, or clicking the screen Down Arrow, those spinning Dyops appear to become smaller.  Eventually ONLY ONE of the spinning Dyops can be detected as spinning.  Further reduction of the apparent Dyop diameters will have the spinning by both Dyops no longer visible. 


Symptoms of chromatic dyslexia, migraines, and/or epilepsy are indicated when you can ONLY detect as spinning the smaller Blue-on-Black Dyop and NOT the identical diameter spinning Green-on-White Dyop.  The test seems to have a 95% correlation to personal or family history symptoms of chromatic dyslexia, migraines, and/or epilepsy.



PC version


iPad/iPhone version


SmartPhone version:



The Pre-Election Survey


When using the Dyop color screening test prior to the November 2016 Presidential Election, I anecdotally noticed that some enthusiastic Trump supporters also had chromatic dyslexia.  


To attempt a sample validation of “political-visual” correlation, I went to the Food Court of a Nearby Mall to use the color screening test on my iPhone.  The color/contrast screening test works the same on an iPhone as on a computer.  When the identical diameter spinning Green and Blue Dyops became sufficiently smaller, eventually only one if them will be able to be detected as spinning.    


At a nearby Mall Food Court I asked a small survey of 30 "registered voters" for their Dyop color preference as the rings got smaller.  The two questions I asked were,

1.)    "As the Dyops get smaller by moving away from the screen, when you can detect ONLY ONE of the two Dyops spinning, is it the Green-on-White or the Blue-on-Black? 

2.)    “If you were to vote today, would you vote for Clinton or Trump?"


In the initial survey, 17 of the subjects’ preferentially only saw the Blue Dyop spinning and 13 subjects preferentially only saw the Green Dyop spinning.  Of the 30 subjects, 11 of them were Trump supporters and 19 of them were Clinton supporters.  There were approximately six individuals who were also approached but refused to participate in the survey.


ALL of the 11 Trump supporters preferentially saw the smaller spinning BlueNONE of the 11 Trump supporters preferentially saw the smaller identical-diameter spinning Green.  Of the 19 Clinton supporters, six of them preferentially saw the spinning Blue and 13 of them preferentially saw the spinning Green.   Again, NONE of the individuals preferentially seeing the spinning Green were Trump supporters, indicating that ALL of the 11 Trump supporters had chromatic dyslexia.


I have since surveyed an additional 10 subjects.  Four of the additional subjects were Trump supporters and six were Clinton  supporters.  Of the Trump supporters, two preferentially saw the smaller spinning Blue Dyop; however, two of them preferentially saw the smaller spinning Green Dyop.  Two of the additional Clinton supporters preferentially saw the spinning Blue and four of the additional Clinton supporters preferentially saw the spinning Green.


Initial color test responses:


















However, there is anther factor as to the correlation of dyslexia and Trump support.  That factor “explains” why some of the tested dyslexic individuals do NOT like (i.e., despise) Trump.  I personally know some of the dedicated Trump supporters who tested positive for dyslexia symptoms and ALL of them have an abusive/neglected/authoritarian childhood.  The Trump “despisers” I personally know do NOT have those negative childhood experiences.  See below for a discussion of the psychology of abusive relationships.


This is a very limited test with an insufficient number of subjects, but it is something which needs to be objectively validated with a much larger subject group.


Does this mean anything?

Could the overwhelming preference for detecting the spinning Blue, indicating chromatic dyslexia, correlate to the higher percentage of Trump supporters who possibly have dyslexia?  Could that overwhelming preference for seeing the spinning Blue correlate to the percentage of Trump supporters who believe what they hear rather than what they read?  It may is possible that the two Green/Trump preference individuals have strabismus dyslexia rather than chromatic dyslexia.


Maybe not; but it IS very scary.

This could also not only explain the dominance of the Graphic-Based Vision non-college graduates (who were less motivated to go to college due to reading difficulties) in the ranks of the Trump supporters, as well as their gullibility as to Trump's dementia and lies.  Very few of the Letter-Based Vision people were Trump supporters.


You will want to run your own evaluation.  Give/Take the test yourself and with your friends.



Possible Psychological Explanation


One of the psychological effects of dyslexia is overcompensation in dealing with that unstable close image.  Typical of that overcompensation is when a person with chromatic dyslexia walks down a hallway or corridor they will have their head bobbing from side-to-side due to that visual instability (the "Steve Jobs walk").  A person without chromatic dyslexia will walk down the same corridor with their head moving in a straight line.


Dyslexia overcompensation seems to also lead to a preference for authoritarian and hierarchical relationships.  That could translate into a preference for someone projecting confidence rather than competence, and a belief in what they hear rather than what they read.  Reading letter-based words is a collaborative process where the combination of the letters determines the word meaning, and the combination of words is what determines the concept.  Words and letters by themselves frequently have no meaning.  The meaning comes from the context and the relationship with associated words.  NON-dyslexics have mastered the collaborative letter-to-word-to-concept process. 


Trump supporters tend to be authoritarian and hierarchical as to their convictions.  It indicates a preference of Confidence over Competence.   Clinton supporters tend to be collaborative and more concerned with literacy and logic.  It indicates a preference of Competence over Confidence.  However, unlike dyslexics who are NOT Trumps supporters, dyslexic Trump supporter typically have a childhood history of a neglect (such as Steve Jobs) or abuse (such as Donald Trump).   See the Follow-up below.


Cultures in Asia, Africa, and the Mid-east tend to be authoritarian, and tend to have 80% of their populations having Graphic-Based Vision.  However, there is also a 2500 year-old historic precedent as to reading and authoritarian political convictions.  Red-haired Socrates despised reading and writing.  What we know about Socrates is only from the writings of his heretic pupil Plato.  Because of his efforts in attempting to lead a violent revolution to replace Athenian democracy with an oligarchy, Socrates was sentenced to death. Socrates was also the first "certified dyslexic" since his despising reading and writing and hierarchal social attitude was likely due to dyslexia. 


Background information



Follow-up Observations


Matthew MacWilliams discovered that Trump support seem to have a high preference for "authoritarianism."


​​The correlation of authoritarianism to dyslexia symptoms is possibly from the overcompensation to an unstable near vision image. That behavior was typified by the head-bobbing motion of the "Steve Jobs" and his style of management prior to getting fired by Apple.  It also is typified by Jobs' academic failures at Reed College and his forays into drugs, since marijuana acts as a muscle relaxant to reduce the near-Dyop visual stress of Graphic-Based Vision.

​​The most recent (and stunning) observation, however, of Trump's dyslexia was watching the videotape (literally) of Trump's inauguration.  Trump and Pence walked down the corridor towards the inauguration podium with their heads bobbing from side-to-side typical of someone with dyslexia.  They were followed by Obama and Biden walking down the corridor with their heads and eyes moving in a straight line.


Michelle Obama's and Jill Biden's heads also both moved in a straight line.  Melania's head moved in a straight line, probably indicating her training as a model, or that she does not have dyslexia.  However, Eric and Barron Trump both demonstrated head bobbing as they walked, while Ivanka and Donald Junior did not.


I am still trying to understand why about a third of the people who HAVE Graphic-Based Vision are NOT Trump supporters, and are terrified of him.  I think it has to do with group ethics (or "ethics per se") or parental training to be nice to others rather than abusive. 


There may be an explanation as to the childhood of the Trump supporters.   Apparently dyslexics who support Trump seem to be individuals who were either abused or neglected in their childhood.




HOWEVER, I am NOT very optimistic as to the outcome of our society WHEN Trump is removed from office.  There are too many Trump supporters who continue to be oblivious to the lies, the immorality, the corruption, and the bullying to think that they will recognize that they have been conned.


What I am expecting is a massive, Trump supporting, self-appointed militia will riot similar to the riots in India when a beloved guru was convicted of rape:


Fortunately our “well-regulated militia” (the US Military, Police, and National Guard) will be able to deal with the self-appointed “people” who think they have the “right to bear arms” and fail to realize that their obsession is actually that of a self-appointed terrorist organization.


It will not be pleasant.



Caveat: I am in the process of trying to have my correlation academically validated.  Any assistance as to additional validation, OR even valid academic disproval, would be greatly appreciated.